Polish intelligence knew the Soviets had prepared for a new offensive; the Polish High Command decided to launch a preemptive attack.The plan for Operation Kiev was more ambitious than simply defeating the Red Army on Poland's southern flank.The Red Army totaled 5,000,000, with additional millions of Russian recruits to draw from, but much of that force was still engaged in the civil war.This number of troops were far less virile than the number of weapons available, and only one in nine soldiers could be properly classified a fighting man.Before the Battle of Warsaw the 1st Legions Infantry Division comprised three regiments, one of which was armed with German Mauser rifles, a second with French Lebel rifles (carbines), while the third used Russian Mosin–Nagant rifles.Each make of weapon took ammunition of a different caliber.The Soviets had at their disposal much military equipment left by withdrawing German armies, and modern Allied armaments (including armoured cars, armoured trains, trucks and artillery) captured from the White Russians and the Allied expeditionary forces following their defeat in the Russian Civil War.
In 1917 the October Revolution replaced the liberal, democratic Provisional Government, that had previously displaced the Tsar in Russia, with Soviet rule.
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The war ended with the Treaty of Riga in 1920, which settled the border issue and regulated Polish-Soviet relations until the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939.
Soviet forces had won a recent series of major victories against the White Russians, defeating Denikin, and had signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia.